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Akkadian of the Eastern Mediterranean World

AEMW is an on-going project that aims to bring together lemmatized, searchable editions and translations of archival texts written in Akkadian cuneiform from a wide variety of Eastern Mediterranean sites.

The Amarna Letters

The online edition of the Amarna Letters aims to make transliterations, translations, and glossaries of the letters and administrative texts available to both scholars and the wider public. At this time, the project comprises 218 texts. This number represents the correspondence to and from Egypt's client kings in the Levant, excluding the letters sent from Phoenicia. In our next update, we will add the letters from Phoenicia. In our final update, we will add the correspondence to and from the so-called "Great Powers" as well as the administrative texts related to this correspondence.

Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports (AMAR)

The collection is under development as part of the Iraq Cultural Heritage Program Grant. The Iraq Cultural Heritage Project (ICHP) was established in 2008 through a grant from the US Embassy Baghdad. The Cultural Affairs Office at the Embassy oversees the project. International Relief and Development (IRD), a US-based non-governmental organization, implements the project for the Embassy. The aim of the AMAR project is to digitize 500 archaeological site reports describing archaeological excavations both in Iraq and in the immediately surrounding areas (Turkey, Syria, Iran and, the Gulf). 

The Ashurbanipal Library Project

The Library that once belonged to Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria (668-c. 630 BC), is one of most remarkable and fascinating archaeological discoveries ever made. More than 30,000 clay tablets bearing cuneiform inscriptions were excavated by the British Museum between the 1850's and 1930's at the site of the imperial capital, Nineveh. In its day it had been the biggest and most wide-ranging collection of texts yet assembled. Its discovery threw wide open the doors to our understanding of ancient Mesopotamia.

The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI)

represents the efforts of an international group of Assyriologists, museum curators and historians of science to make available through the internet the form and content of cuneiform inscriptions dating from the beginning of writing, ca. 3350 BC.number of these artifacts currently kept in public and private collections to exceed 500,000 exemplars, of which now more than 350,000 have been catalogued in electronic form by the CDLI.

The CDLI Collection

The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) represents the efforts of an international group of Assyriologists, museum curators and historians of science to make available through the internet the form and content of cuneiform inscriptions dating from the beginning of writing, ca. 3350 BC. number of these artifacts currently kept in public and private collections to exceed 500,000 exemplars, of which now more than 350,000 have been catalogued in electronic form by the CDLI.

CDLI- Mesopotamian Seals

Contains entries documenting ca. 53,582 Mesopotamian entries related to seals and sealing: 39,622 represent clay tablets, tags, or other sealings, most of whose seal impressions included owner legends, and currently just 7,854 are physical seals; 6,117 CDLI entries represent composites derived from seal impressions, and therefore the negatives of original cylinder seals now lost.

Corpus of Akkadian Shuila Prayers Online

This catalog is based on the work of Werner Mayer (1976) and more recently Christopher Frechette (2012) included in his catalog many of the pieces Mayer has identified and published in various publications since 1976. It also draws particular data about each tablet from the CDLI database.

Shuilas are liturgical ritual-prayers that were directed to the high deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon such as Marduk, Shamash, and Ishtar, among others.

Corpus of Kassite Sumerian Texts

The Kassite dynasty, which came to power after the raid on Babylon by the Hittites, reigned over Babylonia for several centuries (ca. 1570 - 1155).  The Sumerian corpus of the period is not very large, but there are reasons to suspect that we only have a tiny fraction of a rich Sumerian literate culture.

Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts (BDTNS)

The Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts is a searchable electronic corpus of Neo-Sumerian administrative cuneiform tablets dated to the 21st century B.C. During this period, the kings of the Third Dynasty of Ur built an empire in Mesopotamia managed by a complex bureaucracy that produced an unprecedented volume of written documentation. It is estimated that museums and private collections all over the world hold at least 120,000 cuneiform tablets from this period, to which should be added an indeterminate number of documents kept in the Iraq Museum.

The Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts

Cuneiform writing was invented some 5000 years ago in southern Iraq for the purpose of keeping accounts — and for the next few hundred years book-keeping remained its sole use. The last datable cuneiform tablet, also from southern Iraq, is an astronomical diary for the year 75 CE. For the three millennia spanning the rise and fall of cuneiform writing, and arguably for some time after, numeracy was an inseparable and essential part of literate culture throughout the Middle East.

While the vast majority of cuneiform tablets contain numerical data, written by professional scribes, a smaller number are the outcome of teaching, learning, or communicating mathematical techniques or ideas as part of scribal education. This website presents transliterations and translations of around a thousand published cuneiform mathematical tablets; a similar number await decipherment and analysis in museums around the world.

Ebla Digital Archives

Based on a partnership with the Ebla Archaeological Mission, the Ebla Digital Archives [EbDA] project aims to provide a digital edition of the entire corpus of Ebla texts. It includes all documents published so far in the ARET series (“Archivi Reali di Ebla – Testi”) as well as in other monographs and journals.

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL)

The literature written in Sumerian is the oldest human poetry that can be read, dating from approximately 2500 BCE onwards. It includes narrative poetry, praise poetry, hymns, laments, prayers, songs, fables, didactic poems, debate poems and proverbs. The majority of this has been reconstructed during the past fifty years from thousands of often fragmentary clay tablets inscribed in cuneiform writing.

Preparation of the corpus began at the University of Oxford in November 1997, supported by substantial funding from The Leverhulme Trust. The project team consisted of Dr Jeremy Black, Dr Graham Cunningham and Dr Gábor Zólyomi, with the continued collaboration of Dr Eleanor Robson.

In 2001, the project secured a five-year grant from The Arts and Humanities Board. This generous grant made it possible to continue to expand and enhance the corpus, and also to take on board new project members.

Mapping Mesopotamian Monuments

Mapping Mesopotamian Monuments presents a topographical survey of the standing historical monuments and architecture in the region from Iraqi Kurdistan and southeastern Anatolia (Turkey) to southern Iraq. A work in progress, this monument survey covers all historical periods from ancient to modern. It includes ancient Mesopotamian rock reliefs carved into the cliff faces of the mountains, early Christian churches and monasteries, and early Islamic, Ottoman-era and 20th-century architecture and monuments. This database of images invites you to explore the multiple layers of the rich historical landscape of Mesopotamia. Envisioned and directed by Professor Zainab Bahrani, the basis of the survey is an ongoing field project that assesses the condition of monuments, maps their locations, and records them with digital techniques in order to provide a record and to facilitate future preservation work across this region.

Middle Euphrates Digital Archive

An ongoing project of the Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, the Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale". It was conceived and carried out by Dr. Francesco Di Filippo, under the supervision of Prof. Carlo Zaccagnini, and with the financial support of the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR). The project also benefited from the pioneered work of Dr. Stefano Bassetti (a former student of Prof. Carlo Zaccagnini at the University of Bologna), who in the late 80's carried out a comprehensive encoding of the Emar corpus.

Neo-Assyrian Bibliography

Funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) grant S 10802–G18 (research project “Royal Institutional Households in 1st Millennium BC Mesopotamia,” part of the National Research Network “Imperium and Officium: Comparative Studies in Ancient Bureaucracy and Officialdom”) during the period March 2009-February 2015.

Oxford Archaeology Image Database

Featuring photographs from various sites. The use of the images in research and academic publications is encouraged.


Prosobab is an open access database of the recorded inhabitants of Babylonia between c. 620 and 330 BCE. Its main focus is on individuals who lived in southern Mesopotamia under Persian rule (539-330 BCE), but it also includes the preceding period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in an attempt to contextualize their lives and those of their family members. In addition to person data, Prosobab collects information on the texts and archives in which the individuals are recorded. The database is developed in the framework of the ERC project Persia and Babylonia at Leiden University and is intended for everybody with an interest in Babylonian history or the Persian Empire.

The Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online (RIBo) Project

a sub-project of the Official Inscriptions of the Middle East in Antiquity (OIMEA) Project, is to publish in a single place easily accessible and annotated (lemmatized) editions of all of the known Akkadian and Sumerian royal inscriptions from Babylonia that were composed between 1157 BC and 64 BC. RIBo's contents are divided into several sub-projects, generally by "dynasty" or period. The "dynastic" numbering follows that of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Babylonian Periods (RIMB) publications of the now-defunct Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia (RIM) Project.

The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period

Numerous royally commissioned texts were composed between 744 BC and 609 BC, a period during which Assyria became the dominant power in southwestern Asia. Eight hundred and fifty to nine hundred such inscriptions are known today. The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period (RINAP) Project, under the direction of Professor Grant Frame of the University of Pennsylvania, will publish in print and online all of the known royal inscriptions that were composed during the reigns of the Assyrian kings Tiglath-pileser III (744–727 BC), Shalmaneser V (726–722 BC), Sargon II (721–705 BC), Sennacherib (704–681 BC), Esarhaddon (680–669 BC), Ashurbanipal (668–ca. 631 BC), Aššur-etel-ilāni (ca. 631–627/626 BC), Sîn-šumu-līšir (627/626 BC), Sîn-šarra-iškun (627/626–612 BC), and Aššur-uballiṭ II (611–609 BC), rulers whose deeds were also recorded in the Bible and in some classical sources. The individual texts range from short one-line labels to lengthy, detailed inscriptions with over 1200 lines (4000 words) of text.

Warburg Institute Iconographic Database

A rich and ever-growing collection of iconographic data and images from around the world and from different periods.

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